Video Action Shoulder
an educational presentation

Video Action Shoulder at the Glenohumeral Joint

Get Massage Smart thanks Elsevier learning and everyone involved with this educational production see credits below.  Video action shoulder demonstrates how movement at the shoulder requires motion at multiple joints.  The shoulder girdle comprises the scapula, clavicle and humerus.  The motions that can be produced at the shoulder primarily involve motion at the scapulothracic joint (considered a false joint), acromiocalvicular joint, sternoclavicular joint and the glenohumeral joint.  In addition to these joints it is necessary to understand the movement within the intervertebral joints in the thoracic and lumbar region also take place within the full range of motion of the shoulder or pectoral girdle.

Each of these joints provide their own motion and present their limitations within the overall motion of the upper limb at the shoulder.  The glenohumeral joint is capable of flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, medial rotation and lateral rotation.  Movement beyond the motion of this joint requires scapular motion. 

Watch the above video from Elsevier Learning.  The motion described includes both glenohumeral and scapular envolvememnt.  The glenohumeral joint is limited to 90 degrees for flexion and extenstion and 90 degrees of abduction and adduction.  Beyond 90 degrees scapular motion engages.

Read through the chart that breaks down the action of the arm at the glenohumeral joint.  If you have not already study our page on video action scapula open the page and view the scapular motion videos.  Take time to study the action break down of the scapula.  Once you have spent time reviewing this material open the next video on the shoulder by 3D Anatomy Lyon.  This education animation provides a visual of all the joints in motion that are engaged during motion of the shoulder or pectoral girdle. 


The Following Chart Breaks Down the Actions of the Arm                       Specifically at the Glenohumeral Joint

 Raising the arm up: Flexion

Limited to 90 degrees at the Glenohumeral Joint

Note: the video demonstrates anterior motion or flexion beyond 90 degrees which results in scapular motion to allow the arm to continue motion over the head

Occurs in the Sagittal Plane around the Mediolateral Axis

Muscles

Pectoralis Major, clavicular head

Deltoid, clavicular part

Biceps Brachii, short head

Coracobrachialis

Note: scapular muscles would engage to stabilize scapula against rib cage


Returning the raised arm: Extension

The excursion of the arm from 90 degrees back to neutral or anatomic position, with arms at the side

Note:  the video demonstrates  motion from other the head back to 90 degrees is scapular motion form 90 degrees to anatomic position is glenohumeral motion

Motion past anatomic position is referred to as hyperextension

Occurs in the Sagittal Plane around the Mediolateral Axis

Muscles

Deltoid, posterior fibers

Latissimus Dorsi

Teres Major

Note: scapular muscles would encage to stabilize the scapula against the rib cage

Moving the arm away from the side: Abduction

Movement of the arm at the glenohumeral joint away from the side or trunk of the body is limited to 90 degrees

Note: the video demonstrates movement past 90 degrees as in bringing the arm over the head, this would require scapular motion

Occur in the Frontal Plane around an Anteroposterior Axis

Muscles

Deltoid, middle fibers

Supraspinatus

Note: scapular muscles would engage to stabilize the scapula against the rib cage and to move the scapula if the arm continues to be lifted over the head

Return the arm back to the side: Adduction

Movement of the arm at the glenohumeral joint back to the side or toward the trunk from 90 degrees

Note: the video demonstrates motion from over the head toward to body back to anatomical position

The video also demonstrates motion past anatomic posteriorly and anteriorly

Occur in the Frontal Plane around an Anteroposterior Axis

Muscles

Pectoralis Major, sternocoastal part

Latissimus Dorsi

Teres Major

Note: scapular muscles would engage to stabilize the scapula against the rib cage


Rotating the arm away from the midline of the body: Lateral Rotation

Movement of the arm at the glenohumeral joint that produces lateral rotation of the humerus away from the trunk or midline of the body

Occur at the Transverse Plan around the Vertical Axis

Muscles

Deltoid, posterior fibers

Infraspinatus

Teres Minor

Rotating the arm toward the midline of the body: Medial Rotation

Movement of the arm at the glenohumeral joint that produces metail rotation of the humerus toward the trunk or midline of the body

Occur at the Transverse Plan around the Vertical Axis

Muscles

Pectoralis Major

Latissimus Dorsi

Deltoid, clavicular part

Teres Major

Subscapularis


References and Resources

This video is presented for its educational value and accuracy is not validated by getmassagesmart.com. 

Uploaded on Apr 27, 2010

This excerpt from the the DVD that accompanies Kinesiology: The Skeletal System and Muscle Function, Enhanced Edition by Joseph E. Muscolino (Mosby, 2007) provides an in-depth look at the motion of the shoulder joint. It illustrates the joint's flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation, horizontal flexion, and horizontal extension. For more information about this and Joseph E. Muscolino's other books, please visit www.learnmuscles.com or www.us.elsevierhealth.com.


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