Muscle Chart Upper Extremity

This Chart is Under Construction, our goal is to include muscles that control the elbow, wrist and hand: Last Updated 11/14/17

Note: We have had multiple requests to complete the muscle charts.  We will focus our energy on completing this project in the first quarter of next year.  Thank you for your patients.

Gray's Anatomy Image Plate: Anterior Deltoid is highlighted in green, Pectoralis Major Claviclur Head is highlited in orange, Coracobrachialis is highlighted in yellow, and Biceps Brachii Short Head is highlighted in lavender. 

Home>Learn Muscles>Lower Extremity Muscles>Muscle Chart Lower Extremity>Muscle Chart Upper Extremity

The muscle chart upper extremity is intentionally organized into groups of action that act upon a joint.  Click the name of the muscle and an image of the muscle will open in a new window.  Study the information and use the unlabeled image from the University of Michigan like a flash card to reinforce your learning.  Muscle fibers or cells are contractile and when voluntary or striated skeletal muscle is stimulated by the conscious desire to move around within our environment a contraction will takes place.  A signal is sent from our central nervous system to the muscle fiber and muscle groups responsible for moving the joint.  Actual locomotion of the body takes place at a joint.  A kinetic chain or serious of movements via specific joints is necessary to produce full body movements.  If you are at the beginning of your study of the skeletal muscles, we suggest that you take a look at our page on how skeletal muscles are named.  In addition it may helpful to follow along with our collection of educational videos on each muscle and muscle groups on the upper extremity.

Flexors of the Humerus at the Shoulder Joint

Antagonists are Extensors of the Humerus at the Shoulder Joint

Muscle Chart Upper Extremity
Click on the Name of the Muscle to see Muscle Image.
Click on the action to see a detailed discussion

Muscle, Action, & Nerve

Origin

Insertion


Anterior Deltoid

Prime mover of flexion of the humerus at the shoulder Joint (Glenohumeral). 

Action anterior deltoid flexion of the humerus at the shoulder, medial rotation of humerus and horizontal adduction of humerus.


Middle Deltoid

Action middle deltoid abduction of humerus to 90 degrees.


Posterior Deltoid

Action posterior deltoid extension, horizontal abduction, lateral rotation of humerus.

The Deltoid forms the rounded muscle that covers the top of the shoulder joint. 

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments are axillary nerve Circumflex roots C5-C6.

O.  Lateral Third of Clavicle


O.  Lateral acromion

O.  Spine of the Scapula

I.  Deltoid Tuberosity


I.  Deltoid Tuberosity

I.  Deltoid Tuberosity


Pectoralis Major

(Clavicular Head)

Synergist Flexion of Humerus at the shoulder Joint (Glenohumeral).

Action Pectoralis Major is adduction, horizontal adduction, and medial rotation of the humerus.

Clavicular Head:  weak Flexor of the humerus and medial rotation of the humerus at the joint.

Sternal Head: extension of humerus from a flexed position and medial rotation of the humerus at the joint.

The Pectoralis Major forms the anterior wall of the axilla.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments clavicular head lateral pectoral nerve roots C5-C7.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments sternal head medial pectoral nerve roots C8 and T1.

O. Clavicular Head: Medical Half of the clavicle

O. Sternal Head: Sternum and cartilage of upper 6  ribs.

I.  Lateral Lip of the

(Intertubercular) or

Bicipital grove of the Humerus


     


Coracobrachialis

Synergist Flexion of Humerus at the shoulder Joint (Glenohumeral).

Action flexion and adduction of the humerus at the shoulder joint.

The coracobrachials is named for its origin and insertion.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments musculocutaneous nerve roots C5-C7. 

O.  Coracoid Process Of       Scapula

I.  Middle 1/3 of medial Surface of humeral Shaft


Biceps Brachii

(short head)

Action short head flexion of humerus.  Short & long head flexion of elbow and supination of forearm.

Biceps means two heads and brachium is Latin for arm.  The long head passes thru the capsule of the joint and travels along the bicipital or intertubercular grove.  The short head originates on the coracoid process along with the origin of coracobrachialis and the insertion of pectoralis minor.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments musculocutaneous nerve roots C5-C6.

O.  Short head: Coracoid     Process of Scapula

Long head: Supraglenoid      Tubercle of Scapula

I.  Tuberosity of Radius and Bicipital Aponeurosis


Get Massage Smart makes every effort to insure the accuracy of the educational information provided within the muscle chart upper extremity.  Get Massage Smart does not validate the accuracy of this material and recommends that the original text be consulted. 

To Test Your Knowledge of the shoulder Flexors go to  Get Body Smart Tutorials

  • It can be helpful to read through each muscle in this muscle chart upper extremity, 2 to 3 times before moving on to Get Body Smart. Note: Get Body Smart is in the Process of converting the site to HTML5.  As a result the tutorials have a slightly different functionality than what is shown in Jennifer Smith's educational video's.
  • At getbodysmart.com Review the information on the muscles, take a look at the 3D animation and then take the muscle quiz provided by clicking the muscle system at the bottom of the page. 
  • Make sure you click on the blue high lighted action to see the body animation perform that action, you can click on the tab under the animation to have it repeat the action or  you can click on the action buttons at the bottom of the tutorial.
  • You can click on the numbers under the image to remove or add muscles to your view. You can now go to page two of the tutorial to see the nerve that innervates the indicated muscle and then the nerve roots from which the nerve originates.   
  •  Also if you click on the blue high lighted origin or insertion, you will see the red origin and blue insertion bony attachments for the muscle indicated. 
  • You can no longer quiz yourself from the main muscle information page,  you must click on the system quizzes on the bottom of the page. 
  • Click on the muscle system,you will now see the muscle quiz selection, to test your knowledge of the Shoulder Flexors click on the tab that says muscles that act on the anterior shoulder.  Go straight to quiz for muscles that act on the anterior shoulder getbodysmart.com

Gray's Anatomy Image Plate: Triceps Brachii is shown in organge, Teres Major is shown in yellow, Latissimus dorsi is shown in light green, Teres minor is shown in green, Infraspinatus is shown in blue, and a section of Posterior Deltoid is shown in purple.

Gray's Anatomy Image Plate: Latissimus dorsi is shown in light green, Posterior Deltoid is shown in orange, Teres Major is shown in blue and Infraspinatus is shown in yellow.

Extensor of the Humerus at the Shoulder Joint

Antagonists are Flexors of the Humerus at the Shoulder Joint

Muscle Chart Upper Extremity
Click on the Name of the Muscle to see Muscle Image.
Click on the action to see a detailed discussion

Muscle, Action, & Nerve

Origin

Insertion


Latissimus dorsi

Prime mover of extension of the humerus.

Action latissimus dorsi extension, medial rotation and adduction of the humerus

This muscle is named for its size and location.  Latissimus refers to wide and dorsi refers to back.  It is a strong extensor of a flexed humerus in activities such as swimming, or chopping wood with an ax.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments thoracodorsal nerve and roots C7-C8.


O.  Thoracolumbar       aponeurosis lower 6 thoracic spinous       processes Sacrum and     iliac crest, lower 3 to 4      ribs, inferior angle of       scapula

I.  Bicipital Groove of the

     Humerus


Teres Major

Synergist in extension of the humerus at the shoulder joint

Action teres minor extension, medial rotation and adduction of humerus

Teres major inserts next to latissimus dorsi and has the same actions.  Together with infraspinatus this muscle pulls downward on the joint to stabiliaze the head of the humerus during abduction.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments Lower subscapular nerve roots C5-C6.

O.  Inferior angle of scapula (dorsal surface), lower third of axillary boarder of scapula

I.  Medial lip of bicipital

     groove of humerus


Posterior Deltoid

Synergist in extension of the humerus at the shoulder joint

Action posterior deltoid extension, horizontal abduction, lateral rotation of humerus.

The Deltoid forms the rounded muscle that covers the top of the shoulder joint. 

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments are axillary nerve Circumflex roots C5-C6.

O.  Spine of the Scapula

I.  Deltoid Tuberosity


Infraspinatus

Synergist in extension of the humerus at the shoulder joint

Action lateral rotation and extension of the humerus at the shoulder joint

Infraspinatus muscle is a member of a group of muscles that form a cuff around the head of the humerus and are referred to as the rotator cuff muscles. The S.I.T.S. muscles of the rotator cuff are supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and supscapularis.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments Suprascapular nerve C5-C6.

O.  Infraspinous Process

       Of Scapula

I.  Greater Tubercle of Humerus (Middle Facet)


Teres minor

Synergist extension of the humerus at the shoulder joint

Action lateral rotation and extension of the humerus at the shoulder joint

Teres minor is a member of a group of muscles that form a cuff around the head of the humerus and are referred to as the rotator cuff muscles.  The S.I.T.S. muscles of the rotator cuff are supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis.

Nerve to muscle and spinal roots Axillary (circumflex) nerve C5-C6.

O.  Upper two thirds of Axillary Boarder of Scapula

I.  Greater Tubercle of Humerus    (inferior facet)



Triceps Brachii 

(long head)

Synergist extension of the humerus at the shoulder joint

Action extension of the elbow and long head extension of the humerus at the shoulder joint

Triceps refers to three as in the three heads of the muscle.  It is important to point out that the long head of the triceps brachii originates on the infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula while the long head of the biceps brachii originates on the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments Radial nerve C7-C8.



O.  Long Head: Infraglenoid  tubercle of the scapula

 Lateral Head: Posterior   humerus above the      spiral groove

 Middle Head: Posterior   humerus below the      spiral groove

I.  Olecranon process of

     the ulna


Pectoralis Major

(sternal head)

Sternal Head Synergist extension of humerus from a flexed position.

Action Pectoralis Major is flexion, adduction, horizontal adduction, and medial rotation of the humerus.

The Pectoralis Major forms the anterior wall of the axilla.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments clavicular head lateral pectoral nerve roots C5-C7.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments sternal head medial pectoral nerve roots C8 and T1.

O.ClavicularHead: Medical  Half of the clavicle

O.  Sternal Head: Sternum and cartilage of upper 6 ribs.

I.  Lateral Lip of the     (Intertubercular) or     Bicipital grove of the    Humerus


Get Massage Smart makes every effort to insure the accuracy of the educational information provided within the muscle chart upper extremity.  Get Massage Smart does not validate the accuracy of this material and recommends that the original text be consulted. 

To Test Your Knowledge of the shoulder Extensors go to Get Body Smart Tutorials

  • It can be helpful to read through each muscle in this muscle chart upper extremity, 2 to 3 times before moving on to Get Body Smart. Note: Get Body Smart is in the Process of converting the site to HTML5.  As a result the tutorials have a slightly different functionality than what is shown in Jennifer Smith's educational video's.
  • At getbodysmart.com Review the information on the muscles, take a look at the 3D animation and then take the muscle quiz provided by clicking the muscles system at the bottom of the page. 
  • Make sure you click on the blue high lighted action to see the body animation perform that action, you can click on the tab under the animation to have it repeat the action or you can click on the action buttons at the bottom of the tutorial.
  • You can click on the numbers under the image to remove and add muscles to your view.  You can now go to page two of the tutorial to see the nerve that innervates the indicated muscle and then the nerve roots from which the nerve originates.
  •  Also if you click on the blue high lighted origin or insertion, you will see the red origin and blue insertion bony attachments for the muscle indicated. 
  • You can no longer quiz yourself from the main muscle information page,  you must click on the system quizzes on the right side of the page. 
  • Click on the muscle system, you will now see the muscle quiz selections, to test your knowledge of the Shoulder Extensors click on the tab that says muscles that act on the posterior shoulder.  Go straight to quiz for muscles that act on the posterior shoulder getbodysmart.com.

Gray's Anatomy Image Plate: Middle Deltoid is highlighted in lime green.

Gray's Anatomy Image Plate: Supraspinatus is highlighted in orange.

Abductors of the Humerus at the Shoulder Joint

Antagonists are Adductors of the Humerus at the Shoulder Joint

Muscle Chart Upper Extremity
Click on the Name of the Muscle to see Muscle Image.
Click on the action to see a detailed discussion

Muscle, Action, & Nerve

Origin

Insertion


Supraspinatus

Prime Mover of Abduction of the humerus at the glenohumeral joint

Action Initiates Abduction, because of its angle of pull requires middle deltoid to complete the action.  Provides for stabilization of the head of the humerus during other joint motions.

Supraspinatus is a member of a group of muscles that form a cuff around the head of the humerus and are referred to as the rotator cuff muscles.  The S.I.T.S. muscles of the rotator cuff are supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments suprascapular nerve spinal roots C5-C6.



O.   Supraspinous fossa of scapula

I.  Greater tubercle of     humerus (superior facet)


Middle Deltoid

Prime Mover of Abduction of the humerus at the glenohumeral joint

Action abduction of the humerus to 90 degrees

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments Axillary nerve spinal roots C5 - C6.


O. Lateral Acromion

I. Deltoid Tuberosity of the Humerus


Get Massage Smart makes every effort to insure the accuracy of the educational information provided within the muscle chart upper extremity.  Get Massage Smart does not validate the accuracy of this material and recommends that the original text be consulted. 

To Test Your Knowledge of the shoulder Abductors go to Get Body Smart Tutorials

  • It can be helpful to read through each muscle in this muscle chart upper extremity, 2 to 3 times before moving on to Get Body Smart. Note: Get Body Smart is in the Process of converting the site to HTML5.  As a result the tutorials have a slightly different functionality than what is shown in Jennifer Smith's educational video's.
  • Get getbodysmart.com Review the information on the muscles, take a look at the 3D animation and then take the muscle quiz provided by clicking the muscle system at the bottom of the page. 
  • Make sure you click on the blue high lighted action to see the body animation perform that action, you can click on the tab under the animation to have it repeat the action or you can click on the action buttons at the bottom of the tutorial.
  • You can click on the numbers under the image to remove and add muscles to your view.  Also, you can now go to page two of the tutorial to see the nerve that innervates the indicated muscle and then the nerve roots from which the nerve originates.
  • In addition, if you click on the blue high lighted origin or insertion, you will see the red origin and blue insertion bony attachments for the muscle indicated. 
  • You can no longer quiz yourself from the main muscle information page,  you must click on the system quizzes on the bottom of the page.
  • Click on the muscle system, you will now see the muscle quiz selections, to test your knowledge of the Shoulder Flexors click on the tab that says muscles that act on the anterior shoulder.  Go straight to quiz for muscles that act on the anterior shoulder getbodysmart.com.

Gray's Anatomy Image Plate: Pectoralis Major is highlighted in deep orange and Coracobrachialis is highlighted in orange. 

Gray's Anatomy Image Plate: Latissimus Dorsi is highlighted in deep orange and Teres Major is highlighted in orange.

Adductors of the Humerus at the Shoulder Joint

Antagonists are Abductors of the Humerus at the Shoulder Joint

Muscle Chart Upper Extremity
Click on the Name of the Muscle to see Muscle Image.
Click on the action to see a detailed discussion

Muscle, Action, & Nerve

Origin

Insertion


Pectoralis Major

(sternal Head)

Prime Mover Adduction of Humerus at the shoulder Joint (Glenohumeral).

Action Pectoralis Major is  adduction, horizontal adduction, medial rotation, and flexion of the humerus.

Clavicular Head: Flexion of the humerus

Sternal Head: adduction & extension of humerus from a flexed position.

The Pectoralis Major forms the anterior wall of the axilla.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments clavicular head lateral pectoral nerve roots C5-C7.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments sternal head medial pectoral nerve roots C8 and T1.

O. ClavicularHead: Medical Half of the clavicle

O.  Sternal Head: Sternum  and cartilage of upper 6     ribs.

I.  Lateral Lip of the     (Intertubercular) or     Bicipital grove of the     Humerus


Latissimus dorsi

Prime mover of adduction of the humerus.

Action latissimus dorsi  adductoin, medial rotation and extension of the humerus

This muscle is named for its size and location.  Latissimus refers to wide and dorsi refers to back.  It is a strong extensor of a flexed humerus in activities such as swimming, or chopping wood with an ax.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments thoracodorsal nerve and roots C7-C8.

O.  Thoracolumbar        aponeurosis lower 6 thoracic spinous       processes Sacrum and   iliac crest, lower 3 to 4 ribs, inferior angle of       scapula

I.  Bicipital Groove of  the  Humerus


Teres Major

Synergist in adduction of the humerus at the shoulder joint

Action Teres Major

adduction, medial rotation and extension of humerus

Teres major inserts next to latissimus dorsi and has the same actions.  Together with infraspinatus this muscle pulls downward on the joint to stabilize the head of the humerus during abduction.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments Lower subscapular nerve roots C5-C6.

O.  Inferior angle of scapula (dorsal surface), lower third of axillary boarder of scapula

I.  Medial lip of bicipital      groove of humerus


Coracobrachialis

Synergist Adduction of Humerus at the shoulder Joint (Glenohumeral).

Action flexion and adduction of the humerus at the shoulder joint.

The coracobrachials is named for its origin and insertion.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments musculocutaneous nerve roots C5-C7. 

O.  Coracoid Process Of   Scapula

I.  Middle 1/3 of medial  Surface of humeral      Shaft


Get Massage Smart makes every effort to insure the accuracy of the educational information provided within the muscle chart upper extremity.  Get Massage Smart does not validate the accuracy of this material and recommends that the original text be consulted. 

To Test Your Knowledge of the shoulder Adductors go to Get Body Smart Tutorials


  • It can be helpful to read through each muscle in this muscle chart lower extremity, 2 to 3 times before moving on to Get Body Smart.
  • At getbodysmart.com Review the information on the muscles then take the muscle quiz provided. 
  • Make sure you click on the blue high lighted action to see the body animation perform that action, click the tab under the animation to have it repeat the action and slide the tab next to the muscles to remove and add muscles to your view. 
  • Also if you click on the blue high lighted origin or insertion, you will see a single muscle with red origin and blue insertion. 
  • You can no longer quiz yourself from the main muscle information page, but you can click on the system quizzes on the right side of the page. 
  • The first quizzes to open will be on the skeletal system, click next from the top of the page to see the muscle quiz selection.  To test your knowledge of the shoulder adductors click on the tab that says muscles that act on the anterior arm (from the shoulder).  Go straight to quiz for muscles that act on the anterior arm (from the shoulder) Get Body Smart.

Gray's Anatomy Image Plate: cut away of Posterior Deltoid highlighted in yellow, Infraspinatus highlighted in lime green and Teres Minor highlighted in orange.

Lateral (Exteranal) Rotators of the Humerus at the Shoulder Joint

Antagonists are Medial (Internal) Rotators of the Humerus at the Shoulder Joint

Muscle Chart Lower Extremity
Click on the Name of the Muscle to see Muscle Image.  Click on the action to see a detailed discussion & group in motion

Muscle, Action, & Nerve

Origin

Insertion

Infraspinatus

Action lateral rotation and extension of the husmerus at the shoulder joint

Infraspinatus muscle is a member of a group of muscles that form a cuff around the head of the humerus and are referred to as the rotator cuff muscles. The S.I.T.S. muscles of the rotator cuff are supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and supscapularis.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments Suprascapular nerve C5-C6.

O.  Infraspinous Process    Of Scapula

I.  Greater Tubercle of Humerus (Middle Facet)


Teres minor

Synergist Lateral (External) Rotation the humerus at the shoulder joint

Action lateral rotation and extension of the humerus at the shoulder joint

Teres minor is a member of a group of muscles that form a cuff around the head of the humerus and are referred to as the rotator cuff muscles.  The S. I. t. S muscles of the rotator cuff are supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis.

Nerve to muscle and spinal roots Axillary (circumflex) nerve C5-C6.

O.  Upper two thirds of Axillary Boarder of Scapula

I.  Greater Tubercle of Humerus (inferior facet)


Posterior Deltoid

Synergist in Lateral Rotation of the humerus at the shoulder joint

Action posterior deltoid extension, horizontal abduction, lateral rotation of humerus.

The Deltoid forms the rounded muscle that covers the top of the shoulder joint. 

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments are axillary nerve Circumflex roots C5-C6.

O.  Spine of the Scapula

I.  Deltoid Tuberosity


Get Massage Smart makes every effort to insure the accuracy of the educational information provided within the muscle chart upper extremity.  Get Massage Smart does not validate the accuracy of this material and recommends that the original text be consulted. 

To Test Your Knowledge of the  Lateral Rotators of the Shoulder go to

Get Body Smart Tutorials

  • It can be helpful to read through each muscle in this muscle chart lower extremity, 2 to 3 times before moving on to Get Body Smart.
  • At getbodysmart.com Review the information on the muscles then take the muscle quiz provided. 
  • Make sure you click on the blue high lighted action to see the body animation perform that action, slide the tab under the animation to have it repeat the action and slide the tab next to the muscles to remove and add muscles to your view.
  • Also if you click on the blue high lighted origin or insertion, you will see a single muscle with red origin and blue insertion. 
  • You can no longer quiz yourself from the main muscle information page, but you can click on the system quizzes on the ride side of the page. 
  • The first quizzes to open will be on the skeletal system, click next from the top of the page to see the muscle quiz selection.  To test your knowledge of the Lateral arm rotators click on the tab that says muscles that act on the posterior arm.  Go straight to quiz for muscles that act on the posterior arm  Get Body Smart.

Gray's Anatomy Image Plate: Sternal head of Pectoralis Major is highlighted in lavender, Clavicular head of Pectoralis Major is highlighted in purple,  Anterior Deltoid is highlighted in Pink, Latissimus Dorsi is highlighted in yellow, Teres Major is highlighted in lime green, and Subscapularis is highlighted in orange.

Medial (internal) Rotators of the Humerus at the Shoulder Joint

Antagonists are Lateral (External) Rotators of the Humerus at the Shoulder Joint

Muscle Chart Lower Extremity
Click on the Name of the Muscle to see Muscle Image.  Click on the action to see a detailed discussion & group in motion

Muscle, Action, & Nerve

Origin

Insertion

Subscapularis

Action Medial Rotation of the humerus at the shoulder joint.

Subscapularis assists in various shoulder actions, depending on the position of the humerus.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segment Upper and Lower Subscapular nerve segments C5 - C6


O. Subscapular Fossa

I. Lesser Tubercle


Anterior Deltoid

Synergist of medial or external rotation of the humerus at the shoulder Joint (Glenohumeral). 

Action anterior deltoid flexion of the humerus at the shoulder, medial rotation of humerus and horizontal adduction of humerus.

The Deltoid forms the rounded muscle that covers the top of the shoulder joint. 

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments are axillary nerve Circumflex roots C5-C6.

O.  Lateral Third of Clavicle

I.  Deltoid Tuberosity


Pectoralis Major

Synergist Medial (Internal) Rotation of Humerus at the shoulder Joint (Glenohumeral).

Action Pectoralis Major is adduction, horizontal adduction, and medial rotation of the humerus.

Clavicular Head:  weak Flexor of the humerus and medial rotation of the humerus at the joint.

Sternal Head: extension of humerus from a flexed position and medial rotation of the humerus at the joint.

The Pectoralis Major forms the anterior wall of the axilla.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments clavicular head lateral pectoral nerve roots C5-C7.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments sternal head medial pectoral nerve roots C8 and T1.

O. Clavicular Head: Medical   Half of the clavicle

O.  Sternal Head: Sternum       and cartilage of upper 6       ribs.

I.  Lateral Lip of the     (Intertubercular) or     Bicipital grove of the    Humerus


Latissimus dorsi

Synergist of Medial (Internal) Rotation of the humerus.

Action latissimus dorsi  adductoin, medial rotation and extension of the humerus

This muscle is named for its size and location.  Latissimus refers to wide and dorsi refers to back.  It is a strong extensor of a flexed humerus in activities such as swimming, or chopping wood with an ax.

Nerve

to muscle and spinal segments thoracodorsal nerve and roots C7-C8.

O. Thoracolumbar       aponeurosis lower 6 thoracic spinous      processes Sacrum and      iliac crest, lower 3 to 4       ribs, inferior angle of       scapula

I. Bicipital Groove of the  Humerus


Teres Major

Synergist in Medial (Internal) Rotation of the humerus at the shoulder joint

Action Teres Major extension, medial rotation and adduction of humerus

Teres major inserts next to latissimus dorsi and has the same actions.  Together with infraspinatus this muscle pulls downward on the joint to stabiliaze the head of the humerus during abduction.

Nerve

to muscle and spinal segments Lower subscapular nerve roots C5-C6.

O. Inferior angle of scapula (dorsal surface), lower third of axillary boarder of scapula

I. Medial lip of bicipital      groove of humerus


Gray's Anatomy Image Plate: Supraspinatus the first S. in S.I.T.S. is highlighted in orange, Infraspinatus the I. in S.I.T.S. is highlighted in pink and Teres Minor the T. in S.I.T.S. is highlighted in lime green.

Gray's Anatomy Image Plate: Subscapularis the second S. in S.I.T.S. is highlighted in deep orange.

Muscles that form the Rotator Cuff

These muscles are Commonly referred to as the S.I.T.S. muscles and form a cuff around the head of the humerus.


All four muscles of the cuff originate on the scapula and act together to centralize the head of the humerus in the glenoid fossa (socket) of the scapula at the Glenohumeral Joint (Shoulder Joint).

Muscle Chart Lower Extremity
Click on the Name of the Muscle to see Muscle Image.  Click on the action to see a detailed discussion & group in motion

Muscle, Action, & Nerve

Origin

Insertion


Supraspinatus

Action Prime Mover and Initiates Abduction, because of its angle of pull requires middle deltoid to complete the action.  Provides for stabilization of the head of the humerus during other joint motions.

Supraspinatus is a member of a group of muscles that form a cuff around the head of the humerus and are referred to as the rotator cuff muscles.  The S.I.T.S. muscles of the rotator cuff are supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments suprascapular nerve spinal roots C5-C6.

O.  Supraspinous fossa of scapula

I. Greater tubercle of     humerus (superior facet)


Infraspinatus

Action lateral rotation and extension of the humerus at the shoulder joint.  Centers the head of the humerus in the socket.

Infraspinatus muscle is a member of a group of muscles that form a cuff around the head of the humerus and are referred to as the rotator cuff muscles. The S.I.T.S. muscles of the rotator cuff are supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and supscapularis.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segments Suprascapular nerve C5-C6.

O.  Infraspinous Process Of Scapula

I.  Greater Tubercle of      Humerus  (Middle Facet)


Teres minor

Action lateral rotation and extension of the humerus at the shoulder joint.  Centers the head of the humerus in the socket.

Teres minor is a member of a group of muscles that form a cuff around the head of the humerus and are referred to as the rotator cuff muscles.  The S. I. t. S muscles of the rotator cuff are supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis.

Nerve to muscle and spinal roots Axillary (circumflex) nerve C5-C6.

O. Upper two thirds of Axillary Boarder of Scapula

I.  Greater Tubercle of     Humerus (inferior facet)


Subscapularis

Action Medial Rotation of the humerus at the shoulder joint.

Subscapularis assists in various shoulder actions, depending on the position of the humerus. Centers the head of the humerus in the socket.


Nerve to muscle and spinal segment Upper and Lower Subscapular nerve segments C5 - C6

O.  Subscapular Fossa

I.  Lesser Tubercle


Gray's Anatomy Plate: Levator Scapula is highlighted in orange, Upper Trapezius is highlighted in yellow and Middle Trapezius is highlighted in deep orange

Gray's Anatomy Plate: Levator Scapula is highlighted in orange and Upper Trapezius is highlighted in yellow

Elevators of the Scapula

Antagonists are Depressors of the Scapula

Muscle Chart Upper Extremity
Click on the Name of the Muscle to see Muscle Image.
Click on the action to see a detailed discussion

Muscle, Action, & Nerve

Origin

Insertion

Levator Scapula

Action Levator Scapula
elevates the scapula

Levator scapula is an L-evator of the scapula and together with upper trapezius will shrug the shoulders.


Nerve to muscle and spinal segments dorsal scapular nerve (C5); the upper part of the muscle receives branches of C3 & C4.

o.  transverse processes  of C1-C4 vertebrae


I.  medial border of the scapula from the superior angle to the spine


Trapezius

Action elevates and depresses the scapula (depending on which part of the muscle contracts); rotates the scapula superiorly; retracts scapula

Upper: elevation and upper rotation of the scapula

Middle: Retracts the scapula

Lower: depression and upward rotation of scapula

This is a triangular shaped muscle, when paired forms a trapezium.

Nerve to muscle and spinal segmentd Accessory nerve (Cranial nerve XI) and branches of C3 -C4.


O.  medial third of the       superior nuchal line,     external occipital      protuberance,      ligamentum nuchae,      spinous processes of     vertebrae C7-T12

I. Upper: lateral third of the clavicle, medial side of the acromion

Middle:  the upper crest of the scapular spine

Lower: tubercle of the    scapular spine


Gray's Anatomy Plate: Pectoralis Major is highlighted in yellow

Gray's Anatomy Plate: Lower  Trapezius is highlighted in orange

Depressors of the Scapula

Antagonists are Elevators of the Scapula


References & Resources for the muscle anatomy information:

Sieg and Adams: "Illustrated Essentials of Musculoskeletal Anatomy", 4th edition, 2002, Megabooks Inc,

Muscolino J E: The Muscular System Manual, The Skeletal Muscles of the Human Body, ed 3, 2009,
Elsevier/Mosby. 

University of Michigan Medical School: Muscle Tables & Illustrations

Getbodysmart.com

Learning Resources
Shoulder Joint Power Point Printable PDF
from Manual of Structural Kinesiology R.T. Floyd, EdD, ATC, CSCS & Kean.edu


Home>Video Series Lower Extremity>Video Series Upper Extremity>Muscle Chart Lower Extremity>Learn the Muscles>Learn the Bones>Articulations and Joints>Anatomy & Physiology Review>Video Action Scapula>Top of Page


Copyright © 2009-2018 All Rights Reserved GETMASSAGESMART.COM